Bone health and associated metabolic complications in neuromuscular diseases

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2012 Nov;23(4):773-99. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2012.08.005. Epub 2012 Oct 17.


This article reviews the recent literature regarding bone health as it relates to the patient living with neuromuscular disease (NMD). Studies defining the scope of bone-related disease in NMD are scant. The available evidence is discussed, focusing on abnormal calcium metabolism, increased fracture risk, and the prevalence of both scoliosis and hypovitaminosis D in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and spinal muscular atrophy. Future directions are discussed, including the urgent need for studies both to determine the nature and extent of poor bone health, and to evaluate the therapeutic effect of available osteoporosis treatments in patients with NMD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone Density* / genetics
  • Bone Density* / physiology
  • Bone Development
  • Bone and Bones / innervation
  • Bone and Bones / metabolism
  • Bone and Bones / physiopathology*
  • Calcium
  • Fractures, Bone / etiology*
  • Fractures, Bone / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Motor Activity
  • Neuromuscular Diseases / complications*
  • Neuromuscular Diseases / physiopathology*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Scoliosis / etiology
  • Vitamin D* / blood
  • Vitamin D* / therapeutic use


  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium