Exercise for Health was a randomized, controlled trial designed to evaluate two modes of delivering (face-to-face [FtF] and over-the-telephone [Tel]) an 8-month translational exercise intervention, commencing 6-weeks post-breast cancer surgery (PS). Outcomes included quality of life (QoL), function (fitness and upper body) and treatment-related side effects (fatigue, lymphoedema, body mass index, menopausal symptoms, anxiety, depression and pain). Generalised estimating equation modelling determined time (baseline [5 weeks PS], mid-intervention [6 months PS], post-intervention [12 months PS]), group (FtF, Tel, Usual Care [UC]) and time-by-group effects. 194 women representative of the breast cancer population were randomised to the FtF (n = 67), Tel (n = 67) and UC (n = 60) groups. There were significant (p < 0.05) interaction effects on QoL, fitness and fatigue with differences being observed between the treatment groups and the UC group. Trends observed for the treatment groups were similar. The treatment groups reported improved QoL, fitness and fatigue over time and changes observed between baseline and post-intervention were clinically relevant. In contrast, the UC group experienced no change, or worsening QoL, fitness and fatigue, mid-intervention. Although improvements in the UC group occurred by 12-months post-surgery, the change did not meet the clinically relevant threshold. There were no differences in other treatment-related side effects between groups. This translational intervention trial, delivered either FtF or Tel, supports exercise as a form of adjuvant breast cancer therapy that can prevent declines in fitness and function during treatment and optimise recovery post-treatment.