Progressive mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to neuronal degeneration in age-mediated disease. An essential regulator of mitochondrial function is the deacetylase, sirtuin 3 (SIRT3). Here we investigate a role for CNS Sirt3 in mitochondrial responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS)- and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-mediated stress. Pharmacological augmentation of mitochondrial ROS increases Sirt3 expression in primary hippocampal culture with SIRT3 over-expression being neuroprotective. Furthermore, Sirt3 expression mirrors spatiotemporal deposition of β-amyloid in an AD mouse model and is also upregulated in AD patient temporal neocortex. Thus, our data suggest a role for SIRT3 in mechanisms sensing and tackling ROS- and AD-mediated mitochondrial stress.