The kidney plays a vital role in the body's defense against potentially toxic xenobiotics and metabolic waste products through elimination pathways. In particular, secretory transporters in the proximal tubule are major determinants of the disposition of xenobiotics, including many prescription drugs. In the past decade, considerable progress has been made in understanding the impact of renal transporters on the disposition of many clinically used drugs. In addition, renal transporters have been implicated as sites for numerous clinically important drug-drug interactions. This review begins with a description of renal drug handling and presents relevant equations for the calculation of renal clearance, including filtration and secretory clearance. In addition, data on the localization, expression, substrates, and inhibitors of renal drug transporters are tabulated. The recent US Food and Drug Administration drug-drug interaction draft guidance as it pertains to the study of renal drug transporters is presented. Renal drug elimination in special populations and transporter splicing variants are also described.