A new generation of technologies commonly named omics permits assessment of the entirety of the components of biological systems and produces an explosion of data and a major shift in our concepts of disease. These technologies will likely shape the future of health care. One aspect of these advances is that the data generated document the uniqueness of each human being in regard to disease risk and treatment response. These developments have reemphasized the concept of personalized medicine. Here we review the impact of omics technologies on one key aspect of personalized medicine: the individual drug response. We describe how knowledge of different omics may affect treatment decisions, namely drug choice and drug dose, and how it can be used to improve clinical outcomes.