This is a report of a case history of a child with cerebral Moyamoya disease and gradual development of systemic hypertension. Sodium depletion combined with enalapril induced renal failure. A bilateral renal artery stenosis was found. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was not successful and was followed by autotransplantation of both kidneys. Histopathological examination of the renal arteries revealed intimal hyperplasia.