This review takes a general approach to describing host cell factors that facilitate measles virus (MeV) infection and replication. It relates our current understanding of MeV entry receptors, with emphasis on how these host cell surface proteins contribute to pathogenesis within its host. The roles of SLAM/CD150 lymphocyte receptor and the newly discovered epithelial receptor PVRL4/nectin-4 are highlighted. Host cell factors such as HSP72, Prdx1, tubulin, casein kinase, and actin, which are known to impact viral RNA synthesis and virion assembly, are also discussed. Finally the review describes strategies used by measles virus to circumvent innate immunity and confound the effects of interferon within the host cell. Proteomic studies and genome wide RNAi screens will undoubtedly advance our knowledge in the future.
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