Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of prolonged diabetes. It is one of the leading causes of vision loss in working age adults and a significant source of morbidity. To reduce the incidence and severity of diabetic retinopathy, it is important to identify patients at risk and promptly implement intensive glycemic and hypertensive control. To date, there are many interventions that can limit moderate and severe vision loss in people with diabetes, including laser photocoagulation, vitrectomy surgery, and intravitreal pharmacological injections. This review aims to define the different stages of diabetic retinopathy and the important therapeutic advances developed to address the major causes of vision loss in each stage.
Keywords: bevacizumab; diabetic macular edema; diabetic retinopathy; proliferative diabetic retinopathy; vision loss; vitrectomy.