A monomeric red fluorescent protein with low cytotoxicity

Nat Commun. 2012;3:1204. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2208.


Multicolour labelling with fluorescent proteins is frequently used to differentially highlight specific structures in living systems. Labelling with fusion proteins is particularly demanding and is still problematic with the currently available palette of fluorescent proteins that emit in the red range due to unsuitable subcellular localization, protein-induced toxicity and low levels of labelling efficiency. Here we report a new monomeric red fluorescent protein, called FusionRed, which demonstrates both high efficiency in fusions and low toxicity in living cells and tissues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Death / drug effects
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Luminescent Proteins / toxicity*
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Models, Molecular
  • Protein Multimerization / drug effects
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / toxicity
  • Xenopus laevis


  • Luminescent Proteins
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • red fluorescent protein