Comparison of different extraction methods for simultaneous determination of B complex vitamins in nutritional yeast using LC/MS-TOF and stable isotope dilution assay

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2013 Feb;405(4):1213-22. doi: 10.1007/s00216-012-6538-x. Epub 2012 Nov 13.


The application of LC/MS-TOF method combined with stable isotope dilution assay was studied for determination of thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxine in food. Nutritional yeast powder was used as a model food matrix. Acid extraction was compared with various enzymatic treatments in ammonium formate buffer to find a suitable method for the conversion of more complex vitamers into the same forms as the used isotope-labeled internal standards. The enzyme preparations α-amylase, takadiastase, β-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase were all able to liberate thiamine and riboflavin. The diastatic enzyme preparations α-amylase and takadiastase also expressed proteolytic side activities resulting in the formation of small peptides which interfered with the mass spectra of thiamine and riboflavin. Liberation of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid from NAD(+) and CoA, respectively, could not be achieved with any of the studied enzyme preparations. Hydrochloric acid extraction at 121 °C for 30 min was found to be destructive to pantothenic acid, but increased the liberation of pyridoxal.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acids / chemistry
  • Chemical Fractionation / methods*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Indicator Dilution Techniques
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Vitamin B Complex / analysis*
  • Vitamin B Complex / isolation & purification*
  • Yeast, Dried / chemistry*


  • Acids
  • Vitamin B Complex