A comparative study of facial asymmetry in philippine, colombian, and ethiopian families with nonsyndromic cleft lip palate

Plast Surg Int. 2012:2012:580769. doi: 10.1155/2012/580769. Epub 2012 Oct 24.


Objective. To compare the asymmetry displayed by Philippine, Colombian, and Ethiopian unaffected parents of patients with nonsyndromic cleft palate (NSCLP) and a control population. Methods. Facial measurements were compared between unaffected parents of NSCLP patients and those in the control group for three populations from South America, Asia, and Africa by anthropometric and photographic measurements. Fluctuating and directional asymmetries, height and width proportions, were analyzed and compared. Results. Fluctuating asymmetries (ear length, middle line to Zigion perpendicular for left and right sides) and variations in the facial thirds demonstrated statistical significance in the study group of unaffected parents from Colombia and Philippines, while increased interorbital distance was evident in the unaffected Ethiopian parents of NSCLP patients. Conclusions. The facial differences in unaffected parents could indicate an underlying genetic liability. Identification of these differences has relevance in the understanding of the etiology of NSCLP.