Background: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Trop-2 is a glycoprotein involved in cellular signal transduction and is differentially overexpressed relative to normal tissue in a variety of human adenocarcinomas, including endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EEC). Trop-2 overexpression has been proposed as a marker for biologically aggressive tumor phenotypes.
Methods: Trop-2 protein expression was quantified using tissue microarrays consisting of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from 118 patients who underwent surgical staging from 2001-9 by laparotomy for EEC. Clinicopathologic characteristics including age, stage, grade, lymphovascular space invasion, and medical comorbidities were correlated with immunostaining score. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed for overall survival, disease-free survival, and progression-free survival in relation to clinical parameters and Trop-2 protein expression.
Results: Clinical outcome data were available for 103 patients. Strong Trop-2 immunostaining was significantly associated with higher tumor grade (p=0.02) and cervical involvement (p<0.01). Univariate analyses showed a significant association with reduced disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.01), and a trend towards significance for overall and progression-free survival (p=0.06 and p=0.05, respectively). Multivariate analyses revealed Trop-2 overexpression and advanced FIGO stage to be independent prognostic factors for poor DFS (p=0.04 and p <0.001, respectively).
Conclusions: Trop-2 protein overexpression is significantly associated with higher tumor grade and serves as an independent prognostic factor for DFS in endometrioid endometrial cancer.