Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is an emerging viral zoonosis and is endemic from Japan, China, Mongolia and Russia, to Central Europe and France. There is no specific treatment and TBE can be fatal. The four licensed prophylactic vaccines are produced according to WHO manufacturing requirements. Large clinical trials and postmarketing surveillance demonstrated safety and efficacy of the two European vaccines. The two Russian vaccines showed their effectiveness in daily use, but limited published data are available on controlled clinical trials. Vaccination recommendations in endemic areas vary significantly. In some countries, public vaccination programs are implemented. The WHO has recently issued recommendations on evidence-based use of TBE vaccines. However, more data are needed regarding safety, efficacy and long-term protection after vaccination.