Clostridium difficile infection rates are Climbing in frequency and severity, and the spectrum of susceptible patients is expanding beyond the traditional scope of hospitalized patients receiving antibiotics. Fecal microbiota transplantation is becoming increasingly accepted as an effective and safe intervention in patients with recurrent disease, likely due to the restoration of a disrupted microbiome. Cure rates of > 90% are being consistently reported from multiple centers. Transplantation can be provided through a variety of methodologies, either to the lower proximal, lower distal, or upper gastrointestinal tract. This review summarizes reported results, factors in donor selection, appropriate patient criteria, and the various preparations and mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplant delivery available to clinicians and patients.
Keywords: Clostridium difficile; fecal bacteriotherapy; fecal flora; fecal flora reconstitution; fecal microbiota transplantation; fecal transplant; recurrent Clostridium difficile infection; stool transplantation.