An involvement of oxidative stress (OS) was found in recent studies of Sjøgren's syndrome (SS) that reported significant changes in protein oxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, TNF-α, nitrotyrosine, and GSH levels in plasma from SS patients. Excess levels of OS markers, as oxidative DNA damage and propanoyl-lysine, were reported in saliva from SS patients. Previous reports concurred with a role of OS in SS pathogenesis, by showing a decreased expression of antioxidant activities in conjunctival epithelial cells of SS patients and in parotid gland tissue samples from SS patients. A link between OS and mitochondrial dysfunction (MDF) is recognized both on the grounds of the established role of mitochondria in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and by the occurrence of MDF in a set of OS-related disorders. Earlier studies detected mitochondrial alterations in cells from SS patients, related to the action of antimitochondrial autoantibodies, and affecting specific mitochondrial activities. Thus, a link between MDF and OS may be postulated in SS, prompting studies aimed at elucidating SS pathogenesis and in the prospect of chemoprevention trials in SS clinical management.