Immune Evasion Strategies of Flaviviruses

Vaccine. 2013 Jan 7;31(3):461-71. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.11.015. Epub 2012 Nov 13.


Flavivirus is a genus of the family Flaviviridae. It includes West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and several other viruses which lead to extensive morbidity and mortality in humans. To establish infection and replication in the hosts, flaviviruses have evolved a variety of strategies to modulate the host's immune responses. In this review, the strategies employed by flaviviruses to evade the innate and adaptive immunity of host are summarized based on current studies, with a major focus on the inhibition of interferon, complement, natural killer (NK) cell, B cell, and T cell responses. This review aims to provide an overview of the current understanding for the mechanisms used by flaviviruses to escape the host's immune response, which will facilitate the future studies on flavivirus pathogenesis and the development of anti-flavivirus therapeutics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Flavivirus / immunology*
  • Flavivirus / pathogenicity*
  • Host-Pathogen Interactions*
  • Humans
  • Immune Evasion*