Indoor fuel exposure and the lung in both developing and developed countries: an update

Clin Chest Med. 2012 Dec;33(4):649-65. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2012.08.003.


Almost 3 billion people worldwide burn solid fuels indoors. Despite the large population at risk worldwide, the effect of exposure to indoor solid fuel smoke has not been adequately studied. Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is strongly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute respiratory tract infections, and lung cancer, and weakly associated with asthma, tuberculosis, and interstitial lung disease. Tobacco use further potentiates the development of respiratory disease among subjects exposed to solid fuel smoke. There is a need to perform additional interventional studies in this field.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / toxicity
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / adverse effects*
  • Biomass
  • Coal / toxicity
  • Developed Countries*
  • Developing Countries*
  • Humans
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / etiology*
  • Smoke / adverse effects


  • Air Pollutants
  • Coal
  • Smoke