Occupational and environmental causes of lung cancer

Clin Chest Med. 2012 Dec;33(4):681-703. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2012.07.001.


Because tobacco smoking is a potent carcinogen, secondary causes of lung cancer are often diminished in perceived importance. The goal of this review is to describe the occurrence and recent findings of the 27 agents currently listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as lung carcinogens. The IARC's updated assessments of lung carcinogens provide a long-overdue resource for consensus opinions on the carcinogenic potential of various agents. Supplementary new information, with a focus on analytic epidemiologic studies that has become available since IARC's most recent evaluation, are also discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Carcinogens / toxicity*
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Lung Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology
  • Occupational Diseases / etiology*
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Carcinogens