Induced sputum, exhaled nitric oxide, and particles in exhaled air in assessing airways inflammation in occupational exposures

Clin Chest Med. 2012 Dec;33(4):771-82. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2012.08.002.


Sensitive methods to detect airways inflammation caused by exposures associated with adverse respiratory effects are crucial, as is the identification of individuals with early-stage disease. In this review, the use of induced sputum and sampling of the fraction of nitric oxide to identify airways inflammation associated with occupational exposures is discussed. In addition, a new method to assess airways inflammation in small airways (sampling and analyses of particles in exhaled air) is introduced.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Exhalation*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / diagnosis*
  • Inflammation / etiology
  • Nitric Oxide / analysis
  • Occupational Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Occupational Diseases / etiology
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Particulate Matter / analysis
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / etiology
  • Sputum


  • Particulate Matter
  • Nitric Oxide