Chicory is a widely consumed vegetable and a source of phenolic compounds. Phenolic acid and flavonoid derivatives were identified in Cichorium endivia var. crispum and var. latifolium and fully characterized using complementary information from two different high-performance liquid chromatography detectors, diode array and mass spectrometer, in positive and negative modes. We describe about 40 phenolic compounds, some of which have never previously been reported in these plants, such as hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (i.e., different mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acid isomers) and mono- and diglycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and myricetin (differing also by the glycosylation site). These data provide a contribution to a more exhaustive identification of phenolic compounds in C. endivia vegetables.