Novel common and rare genetic determinants of paraoxonase activity: FTO, SERPINA12, and ITGAL

J Lipid Res. 2013 Feb;54(2):552-60. doi: 10.1194/jlr.P033266. Epub 2012 Nov 15.


HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity is associated with cardiovascular and other human diseases. As the role of genetic variants outside of the PON gene cluster on PON1 activity is unknown, we sought to identify common and rare variants in such loci. We typed 33,057 variants on the CVD chip in 1,362 subjects to test for their effects on adjusted-PON1 activity. Three novel genes (FTO, ITGAL, and SERPINA12) and the PON gene cluster had SNPs associated with PON1 arylesterase (AREase) activity. These loci were carried forward for rare-variant analysis using Exome chip genotypes in an overlapping subset of 1,051 subjects using sequence kernel association testing. PON1 (P = 2.24 × 10(-4)), PON3 (P = 0.022), FTO (P = 0.019), and SERPINA12 (P = 0.039) had both common and rare variants associated with PON1 AREase. ITGAL variants were associated with PON1 activity when using weighted sequence kernel association testing (SKAT) analysis (P = 2.63 × 10(-3)). When adjusting for the initial common variants, SERPINA12 became marginally significant (P = 0.09), whereas all other findings remained significant (P < 0.05), suggesting independent rare-variant effects. We present novel findings that common and rare variants in FTO, SERPINA12, and ITGAL predict PON1 activity. These results further link PON1 to diabetes and inflammation and may inform the role of HDL in human disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / metabolism*
  • CD11a Antigen / genetics*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / enzymology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / genetics
  • Conserved Sequence
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Exome / genetics
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Multigene Family / genetics
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Proteins / genetics*
  • Serpins / genetics*


  • CD11a Antigen
  • Proteins
  • SERPINA12 protein, human
  • Serpins
  • Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO
  • FTO protein, human
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase