Protein folding and disaggregation are crucial processes for survival of cells under unfavorable conditions. A network of molecular chaperones supports these processes. Collaborative action of Hsp70 and Hsp100 proteins is an important component of this network. J-proteins/DnaJ members as co-chaperones assist Hsp70. As against 22 DnaJ sequences noted in yeast, rice genome contains 104 J-genes. Rice J-genes were systematically classified into type A (12 sequences), type B (9 sequences), and type C (83 sequences) classes and a scheme of nomenclature of these proteins is proposed. Transcript expression profiles revealed that J-proteins are possibly involved in basal cellular activities, developmental programs, and in stress. Ydj1 is the most abundant J-protein in yeast. Ydj1 deleted yeast cells are nonviable at 37 °C. Two rice ortholog proteins of yeast Ydj1 protein namely OsDjA4 and OsDjA5 successfully rescued the growth defect in mutant yeast. As Hsp70 and J-proteins work in conjunction, it emerges that rice J-proteins can partner with yeast Hsp70 proteins in functioning. It is thus shown that J-protein machine is highly conserved.