Adjuvant dependence of APS pathology-related low-affinity antibodies during secondary immune response to tetanus toxoid in BALB/c mice

Immunol Res. 2013 May;56(1):143-9. doi: 10.1007/s12026-012-8378-3.


One of the established animal models for autoimmune disease antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is TTd hyperimmunization of mice. Tetanus toxoid (TTd) and plasma protein β2GPI share structural homology so that immunization with TTd induces appearance of cross-reactive antibodies. In this paper, we have investigated the presence and dynamic of fluctuation of specific (anti-TTd) and auto (anti-β2GPI) antibodies induced in BALB/c mice during secondary immune response after TTd immunization with alhydrogel or glycerol as adjuvants. In addition, we followed the induced reproductive pathology as a sign of autoimmune outcome. We show undoubtedly adjuvant dependance of (1) level of induced anti-TTd IgG antibodies, (2) changes in levels of low-affinity anti-β2GPI IgG antibodies, and (3) change in fecundity and fertility during secondary immune response. These findings once more indicate the importance of chosen adjuvants used for successful immunization and eventual autoantibody outcome, this time associated with the processes involving low affinity, natural antibodies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage*
  • Aluminum Hydroxide / administration & dosage*
  • Animals
  • Antibody Affinity / drug effects
  • Antibody Affinity / immunology
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / chemically induced
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome / immunology*
  • Autoantibodies / blood
  • Cross Reactions
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Fertility / drug effects
  • Fertility / immunology
  • Glycerol / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Immunization, Secondary
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Tetanus Toxoid / administration & dosage
  • Tetanus Toxoid / immunology*
  • beta 2-Glycoprotein I / immunology


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Autoantibodies
  • Tetanus Toxoid
  • beta 2-Glycoprotein I
  • Aluminum Hydroxide
  • Glycerol