Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are main pathogens in neutropenic fever even if the proportion of Gram-positive cocci is increasing. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-producing organisms are an emerging problem in nosocomial infection. Nevertheless, until now, information about risk factors for the acquisition and clinical outcomes of bacteremia due to ESBL-producing organisms is limited in neutropenic patients. From medical records collected between January 2007 and December 2008, we identified a total of 101 consecutive patients who developed bacteremia due to E. coli (n = 87) or K. pneumoniae (n = 14). Twenty-six (26 %) cases of bacteremia were caused by ESBL-producing organisms. A hospital stay of >2 weeks during the 3 months preceding bacteremia [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 5.887; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.572-22.041] and the use of broad-spectrum cephalosporins in the 4 weeks prior to bacteremia (adjusted OR, 6.186; 95 % CI, 1.616-23.683) were significantly related to the acquisition of ESBL. Twenty-four (92 %) of the ESBL-producing organisms were susceptible to either piperacillin-tazobactam or amikacin. Aminoglycosides (amikacin or isepamicin) were the main appropriate antimicrobial agents used against the ESBL-producing isolates during the initial empirical treatment (16/22, 73 %). However, the 30-day mortality rates for ESBL bacteremia and non-ESBL bacteremia were not significantly different (15 vs 5 %; p = 0.199). As alternatives to carbapenem, piperacillin-tazobactam plus amikacin or isepamicin combinations may be effective empirical therapeutic options for patients with neutropenic fever who are at high risk of developing bacteremia with ESBL-producing pathogens.