Strabismus in craniosynostosis

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. May-Jun 2013;50(3):140-8. doi: 10.3928/01913913-20121113-02. Epub 2012 Nov 20.


Strabismus is common in craniosynostosis, with rates from 39% to 90.9% in Crouzon, Apert, Pfeiffer, and Saethre-Chotzen syndromes. This article reviews the epidemiology of strabismus in these disorders and discusses competing theories of the mechanism, including absent muscles, excyclorotation of muscles, and instability of muscle pulleys. The authors then review options for surgical treatment of the often complex ocular misalignment in these disorders.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Craniosynostoses / complications*
  • Eye Movements*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Oculomotor Muscles / physiopathology*
  • Oculomotor Muscles / surgery
  • Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Prognosis
  • Strabismus* / epidemiology
  • Strabismus* / etiology
  • Strabismus* / surgery