Effects of fruit and vegetable, consumed in solid vs beverage forms, on acute and chronic appetitive responses in lean and obese adults

Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Aug;37(8):1109-15. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.183. Epub 2012 Nov 20.


Background: The effects of fruits and vegetables in solid vs beverage forms on human appetite and food intake, acutely and chronically, are unclear.

Methods: This 21-week, randomized, crossover study assessed appetitive ratings following the inclusion of fruits and vegetables, in solid and beverage form, into the habitual diet of healthy lean (n=15) and overweight/obese (n=19) adults with low customary consumption. The primary acute outcomes were satiation (amount of challenge meal consumed), satiety (latency of subsequent eating event) and dietary compensation after a 400 kcal fruit preload. Ratings of appetite were also obtained before and after 8 weeks of required increased fruit and vegetable consumption (20% estimated energy requirement).

Results: Acutely, overweight/obese participants reported smaller reductions of hunger after consuming the fruit preload in beverage compared with solid form (preload × form × body mass index effects, P=0.03). Participants also consumed significantly less of a challenge meal (in both gram and energy) after the ingestion of the solid fruit preload (P<0.005). However, the subsequent meal latency was not significantly different between the solid and the beverage fruit preloads. Total daily energy intake was significantly higher when the obese participants consumed the beverage fruit preload compared with the solid (P<0.001). Daily energy intake was markedly, but not significantly, higher among the lean with the beverage vs solid food form. Hunger and fullness ratings remained stable when participants consumed fruits and vegetables in solid or beverage form for 8 weeks each.

Conclusion: Acute post-ingestive appetitive responses were weaker following consumption of fruits in beverage vs solid food forms. Consumption of beverage or solid fruit and vegetable food loads for 8 weeks did not chronically alter appetitive responses.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Appetite*
  • Beverages*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diet
  • Eating
  • Energy Intake
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Fruit*
  • Guideline Adherence
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Satiation*
  • Satiety Response
  • Thinness / diet therapy*
  • Thinness / epidemiology
  • Thinness / metabolism
  • Time Factors
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vegetables*
  • Weight Loss*