The "decline and fall" of nontyphoidal salmonella in the United kingdom

Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Mar;56(5):705-10. doi: 10.1093/cid/cis967. Epub 2012 Nov 19.


Remarkable changes in the epidemiology of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis have occurred in the United Kingdom over the last century. Between 1981 and 1991, the incidence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in the United Kingdom rose by >170%, driven primarily by an epidemic of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4, which peaked in 1993. Measures introduced to control this epidemic included legislation, food safety advice, and an industry-led vaccination program in broiler-breeder and laying poultry flocks. The incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis has been falling since 1997, and levels of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 have fallen to preepidemic levels and have stayed low. The temporal relationship between vaccination programs and the reduction in human disease is compelling and suggests that these programs have made a major contribution to improving public health.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteriophage Typing
  • Disease Outbreaks
  • Eggs / microbiology
  • Food Safety / methods*
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Poultry
  • Poultry Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Public Health
  • Salmonella / isolation & purification*
  • Salmonella Food Poisoning / epidemiology*
  • Salmonella Infections / epidemiology
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / epidemiology*
  • Seasons
  • Statistics as Topic
  • United Kingdom / epidemiology