Introduction: Gastritis is a broad term, which is used for different conditions by clinicians, endoscopists and pathologists. Classification strategies have led to more congruence between specialists. The histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa is mandatory for diagnosing and classifying gastritis. Main aetiologic factor is infection with Helicobacter pylori. The clinical importance of gastritis lays in the fact that it predisposes to more pronounced damage to the gastric mucosa, in particular peptic ulcer disease, and eventually atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and gastric malignancy, both adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma.
Areas covered: This review covers the current pharmacotherapy options for different forms of gastritis. The main focus is on H. pylori-induced gastritis. Thereafter, other forms of gastritis like autoimmune gastritis and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-related gastropathy are covered.
Expert opinion: The emerging problem of antibiotic resistance requires an accurate knowledge of local eradication rates. Standard triple therapy should be abandoned in regions with high clarithromycin resistance. In these areas, sequential or quadruple therapy is best initial treatment. Further research should focus on non-invasive and effective techniques of susceptibility testing, making a tailored and cost-effective approach. Primary prevention of NSAID-related gastropathy can be enhanced by better education for clinicians and patients, so that both right prescription of gastroprotective agents as therapy adherence will improve.