To identify and assess the level of knowledge and attitudes of health care professionals (HCP) in Qatar toward organ donation and transplantation, this cross-sectional study was carried out from October 2007 to February 2008 in the Accident and Emergency Departments and Intensive Care Units of the hospitals of the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC). A representative sample of 585 HCP working in the hospitals of the HMC was approached and 418 staff gave consent to participate in the study (71.5%). 36.8% were physicians, 48.6% nurses and 14.6% Emergency Medical Service (EMS) technicians. Of the surveyed HCP, 40.7% were males and 59.3% were females. Majority of the staff were in the age group of 30-39 years (58.6%). More than half of the physicians (59.7%) and technicians (57.4%) assumed that organs can be bought and sold in the State of Qatar. Most of the physicians (76.6%) and nurses (75.9%) knew that brain-dead persons are eligible for organ donation, whereas only 57.4% of the EMS technicians thought so. Majority of the HCP supported organ donation; physicians (89.0%), nurses (82.3%) and technicians (70.5%). The attitude of the physicians (24.0%) and nurses (20.2%) to donate a kidney to a family member was very poor compared with the attitude of the technicians (44.3%). Although the HCP support organ donation (83%), more than half of the physicians (51.3%), nurses (61.6%) and technicians (54.1%) wanted to be buried with all their organs intact. The findings, although they give cause for hope, suggest that there is much work yet to be done before organ donation and transplantation can become fully accepted by the medical community in Qatar.