Abnormal infant pulmonary function in young children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy

Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013 Oct;48(10):1008-15. doi: 10.1002/ppul.22718. Epub 2012 Nov 20.


Rationale: Lung function in children with neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) and correlations with future clinical outcomes are needed to guide clinical management.

Objective: To compare results of infant pulmonary function tests (IPFTs) in children with NEHI to disease control (DC) subjects and to correlate NEHI IPFTs with future outcomes.

Methods: We performed a retrospective, single center study of IPFT in subjects diagnosed by lung biopsy (NEHI) or clinically (NEHI syndrome) and in DC subjects evaluated for cancer or pre-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Raised volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression (RVRTC) and plethysmography were performed on all infants and evaluated for quality. Standard spirometry measures, room air oxygen saturations (RA O2 sat), and weight percentiles were collected during follow up.

Measurements and main results: Fifty-seven IPFTs were performed in 15 NEHI, 22 NEHI syndrome, and 20 DC subjects. RVRTC and FRC measurements were obtained in 85% or more of subjects in all groups. Significant airflow limitation (FEV0.5 P-value ≤ 0.01) and air trapping (FRC P-value ≤ 0.01) were seen in NEHI and NEHI syndrome subjects compared to DCs. No significant correlations were found between IPFT, oxygen use, RA O2 sat, and weight at the time of the IPFTs. Initial FEV0.5 and FRC z-scores correlated with RA O2 sat (r = 0.60 and -0.49) at short-term follow up (6-12 months). Most measurements of RVRTC correlated with FEV1 (n = 5) measured 4-5 years later (r > 0.50).

Conclusions: IPFTs in NEHI subjects are feasible, demonstrate significant obstruction and air trapping, and correlate with future RA O2 sat and FEV1 . IPFTs may provide valuable clinical information when caring for NEHI patients. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:1008-1015. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keywords: children's interstitial lung disease; hypoxemia; infant pulmonary function; neuroendocrine cell; pediatric diffuse lung disease.

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • Colorado
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperplasia / physiopathology
  • Infant
  • Lung / physiopathology*
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Neuroendocrine Cells / pathology*
  • Plethysmography
  • Respiratory Function Tests
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Spirometry