PER3 and ADORA2A polymorphisms impact neurobehavioral performance during sleep restriction

J Sleep Res. 2013 Apr;22(2):160-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01062.x. Epub 2012 Nov 21.


The objective of the study was to determine whether ADORA2A or PER3 polymorphisms contribute to individual responsivity to sleep restriction. Nineteen healthy adults (ages 18-39, 11 males, 8 females) underwent sleep restriction (SR) which consisted of seven nights of 3 h time in bed (TIB) (04:00-07:00). SR was preceded by seven in-laboratory nights of 10 h TIB (21:00-07:00) and followed by three nights of 8 h TIB (23:00-07:00). Volunteers underwent psychomotor vigilance, objective alertness, and subjective sleepiness assessments throughout. Volunteers were genotyped for the PER3 VNTR polymorphism (PER3(4/4) n = 7; PER3(4/5) n = 10; PER3(5/5) n = 2) and the ADORA2A c.1083T>C polymorphism, (ADORA2A(C) (/T) n = 9; ADORA2A(T) (/T) n = 9; ADORA2A(C) (/C) n = 1) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Separate mixed-model anovas were used to assess contributions of ADORA2A and PER3 polymorphisms. Results showed that PER3(4/4) and ADORA2A(C/T) individuals expressed greater behavioral resiliency to SR compared to PER(4/5) and ADORA2A(T/T) individuals. Our findings contrast with previously reported non-significant effects for the PER3 polymorphism under a less challenging sleep restriction regimen (4 h TIB per night for five nights). We conclude that PER3 and ADORA2A polymorphisms become more behaviorally salient with increasing severity and/or duration of sleep restriction (based on psychomotor vigilance). Given the small sample size these results are preliminary and require replication.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Arousal / physiology
  • Female
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Period Circadian Proteins / genetics*
  • Period Circadian Proteins / physiology
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics*
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology*
  • Receptor, Adenosine A2A / genetics*
  • Sleep Deprivation / genetics*
  • Sleep Deprivation / physiopathology
  • Wakefulness / genetics
  • Wakefulness / physiology
  • Young Adult


  • PER3 protein, human
  • Period Circadian Proteins
  • Receptor, Adenosine A2A