Acute kidney injury requiring dialysis following carmustine and etoposide during autologous stem cell transplantation

Chemotherapy. 2012;58(5):349-51. doi: 10.1159/000343661. Epub 2012 Nov 17.


Background: The Stanford BCNU protocol (carmustine, etoposide and cyclophosphamide) is a high-dose conditioning regimen widely used prior to autologous stem cell transplantation. While acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy is a known but rare complication of autologous stem cell transplantation, acute nephrotoxicity following carmustine and etoposide has not yet been reported.

Case: We present the first case of carmustine-induced acute kidney injury in the setting of autologous stem cell transplantation and perform a review of the literature. Renal failure was associated with a sharp rise in serum creatinine, oliguria and trace proteinuria. Urgent haemodialysis was required; however, renal failure resolved after 7 days.

Conclusion: Although a rare complication, its severity mandates close monitoring of renal function as early recognition and treatment may limit long-term sequelae.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / drug therapy*
  • Aged
  • Antiemetics / therapeutic use*
  • Carmustine / therapeutic use*
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Etoposide / therapeutic use*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Transplantation Conditioning
  • Transplantation, Autologous
  • Urinalysis


  • Antiemetics
  • Etoposide
  • Creatinine
  • Carmustine