Aims: Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a frequent and potentially harmful complication of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), especially in the setting of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We tested the efficacy of a sodium bicarbonate (SB)-based hydration in urgent PCI for STEMI.
Methods and results: From June 2009 to September 2010, 262 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing urgent PCI were prospectively enrolled and treated by SB-based hydration (154 mEq/L at 3 ml Kg-1 for one hour followed by 1 ml Kg-1 for six hours) (group A). As controls, 262 consecutive STEMI patients receiving 0.9% saline hydration (1 ml Kg-1 for 24 hours) before June 2009 were retrospectively enrolled (group B). Both groups received high-dose N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The primary endpoint was the composite of in-hospital death, need for dialysis and CIN (≥25% increase in serum creatinine at 48 hours). The two groups were comparable for baseline clinical and procedural characteristics, for Mehran risk score and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate. The primary combined endpoint was significantly reduced in group A as compared to group B (9.2 vs. 18.7%, p=0.023) with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 11. Specifically, a significant reduction of both in-hospital death (2.3 vs. 6.1%, p=0.049, NNT 27) and CIN (8.0 vs. 14.1%, p=0.03, NNT 17) was observed, with no difference in the need for dialysis.
Conclusions: Our data indicate that hydration with sodium bicarbonate in addition to high-dose NAC in the setting of urgent PCI for STEMI is associated with a net clinical benefit.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01218178.