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, 88 Suppl 2 (Suppl_2), i86-94

Identifying and Quantifying Misclassified and Under-Reported AIDS Deaths in Brazil: A Retrospective Analysis From 1985 to 2009

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Identifying and Quantifying Misclassified and Under-Reported AIDS Deaths in Brazil: A Retrospective Analysis From 1985 to 2009

Erika Fazito et al. Sex Transm Infect.

Abstract

Background: A retrospective analysis of deaths registered in the Brazilian Mortality System was conducted to quantify the under-reporting of HIV/AIDS deaths and those misclassified to AIDS-related conditions in the 15-49 years old population in Brazil.

Methods: Death rates for AIDS-related diseases were calculated by age and sex for 1985-2009. Changes in the age-sex-specific death rates over time were used to identify conditions likely to be misclassified AIDS deaths and to quantify the corresponding number of misclassified deaths. Deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed across all other natural causes of death. The resulting total number of AIDS deaths was further adjusted for incompleteness of the mortality reporting system.

Results: Out of the 28 potential causes of death investigated, five increased in the same distinct age pattern as AIDS: pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, other immunodeficiencies, other septicaemia and toxoplasmosis. 18 490 deaths due to these five causes were recoded to HIV/AIDS from 1985 to 2009. 38 145 deaths due to ill-defined causes were redistributed to AIDS and 15 485 were added to the number of AIDS deaths to correct for completeness of the mortality system in Brazil. Altogether, 72 120 deaths were recoded to AIDS between 1985 and 2009 and added to the reported 194 445 AIDS related deaths in the country, representing 27% misclassification of AIDS deaths in Brazil.

Conclusions: This study demonstrated that AIDS mortality is underestimated by the official mortality information system in Brazil. Efforts need to be made to reduce misclassification of causes of death in the future and identify ways in which the confidentiality of information regarding cause of death can be maintained.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Reasons for underestimation of AIDS deaths by the countries’ official mortality system.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Death rate due to AIDS (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1985–1995.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Death rate due to malignant skin melanomas (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1985–1995.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Death rate due to Kaposi's sarcoma (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1996–2009.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Death rate due to other immunodeficiencies (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1985–1995.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Death rate due to other immunodeficiencies (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1996–2009.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Death rate due to toxoplasmosis (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1985–2009.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Death rate due to pneumonia (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1985–1995.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Death rate due to pneumonia (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1996–2009.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Death rate due to other septicaemias (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil 1985–1995.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Death rate due to other septicaemias (per 100 000 inhab.) by age, sex and year. Brazil, 1996–2009.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Number of reported AIDS deaths, number of AIDS deaths estimated by this study and number of AIDS deaths estimated by EPP/Spectrum for the 15–49 years old Brazilian population, 1985–2009.

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