Malonyl-CoA decarboxylase deficiency (MLYCD) is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism presenting a variable clinical phenotype. We report an affected Italian male receiving an early diagnosis (8days after birth) and a timely dietary therapy (high carbohydrate, low long chain fatty acid and medium chain triglyceride supplemented diet with l-carnitine supplementation). The boy was born at term and presented normal function of the heart (except for a tricuspid Ebstein-like dysplasia) and neurodevelopmental status. Genomic sequencing of MLYCD gene revealed two point mutations (c.672G>A, c.869C>T) not listed in the Human MLYCD Allelic Variant Database nor in Human Gene Mutation Database, responsible for a deleterious effect on protein structure and function according to a computational analysis (MuPro, SIFT, ConSEQ v1.1). At the age of 2years he only showed a mild language and psychomotor delay, while heart functioning became normal. Brain MRI examination was normal. Thirty-five cases, including our patient, have been described to date. This is the first report concerning a malonic aciduria patient diagnosed on newborn screening and treated in a presymptomatic stage of the disease.
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