Innovative technology for knee laxity evaluation: clinical applicability and reliability of inertial sensors for quantitative analysis of the pivot-shift test

Clin Sports Med. 2013 Jan;32(1):61-70. doi: 10.1016/j.csm.2012.08.007. Epub 2012 Sep 25.


There has been an increased interest in the quantification of the knee laxity secondary to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. In clinical practice, the diagnosis is performed by clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging analysis and confirmed arthroscopically. The pivot shift phenomenon has been identified as one of the essential signs of functional ACL insufficiency. A reliable system to adequately assess patients with ACL injury, quantifying the pivot shift test outcome, is needed. Several studies have been conducted in this regard but the proposed methods remain confined to a research area. The goal of this article is to summarize the actual knowledge and current concepts.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acceleration
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiopathology*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / diagnosis*
  • Joint Instability / physiopathology*
  • Joint Instability / surgery
  • Knee Injuries / diagnosis*
  • Knee Injuries / physiopathology*
  • Knee Injuries / surgery
  • Knee Joint / physiopathology
  • Physical Examination / instrumentation
  • Physical Examination / methods*
  • Range of Motion, Articular
  • Reproducibility of Results