Emerging biomarkers and intervention targets for immune-modulation of atherosclerosis - a review of the experimental evidence

Atherosclerosis. 2013 Mar;227(1):9-17. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.10.074. Epub 2012 Nov 6.


The role of inflammation in atherosclerosis and plaque vulnerability is well recognized. However, it is only during recent years it has become evident that this inflammation is modulated by immune responses against plaque antigens such as oxidized LDL. Interestingly, both protective and pathogenic immune responses exist and experimental data from animal studies suggest that modulation of these immune responses represents a promising new target for treatment of cardiovascular disease. It has been proposed that during early stages of the disease, autoimmune responses against plaque antigens are controlled by regulatory T cells that inhibit the activity of auto-reactive Th1 effector T cells by release of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and TGF-β. As the disease progresses this control is gradually lost and immune responses towards plaque antigens switch towards activation of Th1 effector T cells and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β. Several novel immune-modulatory therapies that promote or mimic tolerogenic immune responses against plaque antigens have demonstrated athero-protective effects in experimental models and a first generation of such immune-modulatory therapies are now in early or about to enter into clinical testing. A challenge in the clinical development of these therapies is that our knowledge of the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis largely rests on data from animal models of the disease. It is therefore critical that more attention is given to the characterization and evaluation of immune biomarkers for cardiovascular risk.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antigens / immunology
  • Atherosclerosis / drug therapy
  • Atherosclerosis / immunology*
  • Autoimmunity / immunology
  • B-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Biomarkers / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / immunology
  • Mice
  • Monocytes / drug effects
  • Plaque, Atherosclerotic / drug therapy
  • Plaque, Atherosclerotic / immunology*
  • Receptors, Chemokine / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory / immunology*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Antigens
  • Biomarkers
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • Receptors, Chemokine
  • oxidized low density lipoprotein