Background & aims: Renal impairment increases mortality among patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), despite administration of non-nephrotoxic antibiotics. Albumin infusion has been reported to reduce renal impairment and mortality in patients with SBP. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to quantify the effect of albumin infusion on renal impairment and mortality in patients with SBP.
Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov for RCTs that evaluated albumin treatment for patients with SBP; we also performed searches by additional methods. Four trials of 288 total patients were included in our analysis. Data were quantitatively combined under a fixed-effects model.
Results: We found no evidence of statistically significant heterogeneity or publication bias among the studies analyzed. Albumin was compared with no albumin in 3 trials and with artificial colloid in 1 trial. All patients received antibiotics. The incidence of renal impairment in control groups was 44 of 144 (30.6%), compared with 12 of 144 (8.3%) in groups given albumin. The pooled odds ratio for a reduction in renal impairment after albumin infusion was 0.21 (95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.42). Odds ratios for renal impairment after albumin therapy ranged from 0.19-0.30 among the individual studies. Mortality among controls was 51 of 144 (35.4%), compared with 23 of 144 (16.0%) among patients who received albumin. The pooled odds ratio for decreased mortality after infusion of albumin was 0.34 (95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.60). Odds ratios for mortality in individual RCTs ranged from 0.16-0.55.
Conclusions: In a meta-analysis of 4 RCTs (288 patients), albumin infusion prevented renal impairment and reduced mortality among patients with SBP.
Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.