Objectives: To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of ultrasound (US), multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in cirrhotic patients who were candidates for liver transplantation.
Methods: One hundred and forty consecutive patients with 163 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules underwent US, MRI and MDCT. Diagnosis of HCC was based on pathological findings or substantial growth at 12-month follow-up. Four different image datasets were evaluated: US, MDCT, MRI unenhanced and dynamic phases, MRI unenhanced dynamic and hepatobiliary phase. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV, with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals, were determined. Statistical analysis was performed for all lesions and for three lesion subgroups (<1 cm, 1-2 cm, >2 cm).
Results: Significantly higher diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and NPV was achieved on dynamic + hepatobiliary phase MRI compared with US, MDCT and dynamic phase MRI alone. The specificity and PPV of US was significantly lower than that of MDCT, dynamic phase MRI and dynamic + hepatobiliary phase MRI. Similar results were obtained for all sub-group analyses, with particular benefit for the diagnosis of smaller lesions between 1 and 2 cm.
Conclusions: Dynamic + hepatobiliary phase MRI improved detection and characterisation of HCC in cirrhotic patients. The greatest benefit is for diagnosing lesions between 1 and 2 cm.