Indications and contraindications for double-bundle ACL reconstruction

Int Orthop. 2013 Feb;37(2):239-46. doi: 10.1007/s00264-012-1683-6. Epub 2012 Nov 23.


Over recent years, double-bundle reconstruction has gained popularity after studies showed significant advantages of adding a second bundle with regard to outcomes and biomechanics; in particular, it resulted in less rotational instability than after reconstruction with a traditional single-bundle technique. As the focus shifted further towards the restoration of the native anatomy, both single-bundle and double-bundle ACL reconstruction were performed in an anatomical fashion and yielded similar results. To date, no consensus has developed as to whether double-bundle reconstruction is better than single-bundle reconstruction or vice versa. However, after surgeons started to individualise their surgical approach to the patient, it has been found that both the anatomical single- and double-bundle techniques have their own set of indications and contraindications. Reconstruction of the ligament should focus on restoration of the native functional and anatomical properties and should take the size, shape and orientation of the ACL into account. When indications and contraindications for the technique used are based on native anatomical characteristics, either a single-bundle or a double-bundle procedure can be performed according to the same double-bundle concept.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / anatomy & histology*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiology
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / surgery
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction* / methods
  • Arthroscopy
  • Contraindications
  • Humans
  • Knee Injuries / diagnosis
  • Knee Injuries / rehabilitation
  • Knee Injuries / surgery*
  • Rupture