Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), secreted by enteroendocrine L-cells located most densely in the colon and rectum, are of fundamental importance in blood glucose and appetite regulation. In animal models, colonic administration of bile acids can stimulate GLP-1 and PYY by TGR5 receptor activation. We evaluated the effects of taurocholic acid (TCA), administered as an enema, on plasma GLP-1 and PYY, as well as gastrointestinal sensations in 10 healthy male subjects, and observed that rectal administration of TCA promptly stimulated secretion of both GLP-1 and PYY, and increased fullness, in a dose-dependent manner. These observations confirm that topical application of bile acids to the distal gut may have potential for the management of type 2 diabetes and obesity.
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.