Increasing the number of masticatory cycles is associated with reduced appetite and altered postprandial plasma concentrations of gut hormones, insulin and glucose

Br J Nutr. 2013 Jul 28;110(2):384-90. doi: 10.1017/S0007114512005053. Epub 2012 Nov 27.


To determine the influence of masticatory efficiency on postprandial satiety and glycaemic response, twenty-one healthy males were recruited for this randomised cross-over trial. The participants consumed a fixed amount of pizza provided in equal-sized portions by chewing each portion either fifteen or forty times before swallowing. Subjective appetite was measured by appetite questionnaires at regular intervals for 3 h after the meal and plasma samples were collected for the measurement of selected satiety-related hormones, glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) concentrations. An ad libitum meal was provided shortly after the last blood sample was drawn and the amount eaten recorded. Compared with fifteen chews, chewing forty times per portion resulted in lower hunger (P= 0·009), preoccupation with food (P= 0·005) and desire to eat (P= 0·002). Meanwhile, plasma concentrations of glucose (P= 0·024), insulin (P< 0·001) and GIP (P< 0·001) were higher following the forty-chews meal. Chewing forty times before swallowing also resulted in a higher plasma cholecystokinin concentration (P= 0·045) and a trend towards a lower ghrelin concentration (P= 0·051). However, food intake at the subsequent test meal did not differ (P= 0·851). The results suggest that a higher number of masticatory cycles before swallowing may provide beneficial effects on satiety and facilitate glucose absorption.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Appetite*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Cholecystokinin / blood
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Eating
  • Efficiency
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / blood
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones / blood*
  • Ghrelin / blood*
  • Humans
  • Hunger
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Male
  • Mastication*
  • Postprandial Period / physiology*
  • Satiety Response
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose
  • Gastrointestinal Hormones
  • Ghrelin
  • Insulin
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Cholecystokinin