Endometriois has been associated with infertility; however, the mechanisms by which it affects fertility are still not fully understood. This article reviews the proposed mechanisms of endometriosis pathogenesis, its effects on fertility, and treatments of endometriosis-associated infertility. Theories on the cause of the disease include retrograde menstruation, coelomic metaplasia, altered immunity, stem cells, and genetics. Endometriosis affects gametes and embryos, the fallopian tubes and embryo transport, and the eutopic endometrium; these abnormalities likely all impact fertility. Current treatment options of endometriosis-associated infertility include surgery, superovulation with intrauterine insemination, and in vitro fertilization. We also discuss potential future treatments for endometriosis-related infertility.
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