Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists reduce lipid accumulation in peripheral tissues, attenuating atherosclerosis and hepatic steatosis in preclinical studies. We examined whether GLP-1R activation decreases atherosclerosis progression in high-fat diet-fed male ApoE(-/-) mice after administration of streptozotocin and treatment with the long-acting GLP-1R agonist taspoglutide administered once monthly vs. metformin in the drinking water for 12 wk. Taspoglutide did not reduce plaque area or lipid content in the aortic arch or abdominal aorta, and no significant change in aortic macrophage accumulation was detected after taspoglutide or metformin. In contrast, hepatic triglyceride levels were significantly reduced in livers from taspoglutide-treated mice. Both peripheral and intracerebroventricular administration of exendin-4 rapidly decreased plasma triglyceride levels in fasted mice, and taspoglutide therapy in ApoE(-/-) mice modulated the expression of hepatic genes controlling fatty acid uptake and oxidation. We were unable to detect expression of the entire Glp1r coding sequence in macrophages isolated from ApoE(-/-), C57BL/6, and IL10(-/-) mice. Similarly, Glp1r mRNA transcripts were not detected in RNA from isolated murine hepatocytes. Using Western blotting and tissue extracts from Glp1r(+/+) and Glp1r(-/-) mice, and cells transfected with a tagged murine GLP-1R cDNA, we could not validate the sensitivity and specificity of three different GLP-1R antisera commonly used for the detection of GLP-1R protein. Taken together, these findings illustrate divergent actions of GLP-1R agonists on atherosclerosis progression and accumulation of ectopic lipid in ApoE(-/-) mice and highlight the importance of indirect GLP-1R actions for the control of hepatic lipid accumulation.