The prospects for stem cell-derived therapy in stroke look promising, with a myriad of cell therapy products developed from brain, blood, bone marrow, and adipose tissue in early clinical development. Eight clinical trials have now reported final results, and several are currently registered recruiting patients or pending to start. Products passing the safety hurdle are recruiting patients for large efficacy studies. Besides identifying the most appropriate cell type, other issues to resolve include optimal timing for intervention, optimal delivery route, cell dose, patient selection, relevant clinical endpoints, and monitoring for effectiveness, to advance cell therapy through the hurdles of clinical research. In this chapter, we present the products and strategies used in the current cell therapy trials in ischemic stroke, provide an update on relevant preclinical research, and discuss the vital developments still needed to advance their clinical application as a future therapeutic option.
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