Eighty-three patients underwent 85 intracranial to extracranial pedicle bypass anastomosis procedures to the posterior circulation. There were 15 patients with occipital artery (OA) to posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) anastomosis, 20 patients with OA to anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) anastomosis, and 50 patients with superficial temporal artery (STA) to superior cerebellar artery (SCA) anastomosis. All patients had transient ischemic attacks (TIA's) suggestive of vertebrobasilar ischemia. Twenty-seven patients had crescendo TIA's or stroke in evolution and were considered to be clinically unstable. All patients had severe bilateral distal vertebral artery or basilar artery disease. Twenty-two patients had bilateral vertebral artery occlusion and three had basilar artery occlusion. In this series, 69% had complete resolution of symptoms; the mortality rate was 8.4% and the morbidity rate 13.3%. Clinically stable patients did better than unstable patients. The STA-SCA anastomosis was well tolerated and technically less demanding than the OA-PICA or OA-AICA anastomosis procedures. Patients with symptomatic severe bilateral vertebral or basilar artery disease have a grave prognosis and the option of a surgical arterial pedicle revascularization procedure should be offered to them.