EPD and EPDnew, high-quality promoter resources in the next-generation sequencing era

Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Jan;41(Database issue):D157-64. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1233. Epub 2012 Nov 27.


The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD), available online at http://epd.vital-it.ch, is a collection of experimentally defined eukaryotic POL II promoters which has been maintained for more than 25 years. A promoter is represented by a single position in the genome, typically the major transcription start site (TSS). EPD primarily serves biologists interested in analysing the motif content, chromatin structure or DNA methylation status of co-regulated promoter subsets. Initially, promoter evidence came from TSS mapping experiments targeted at single genes and published in journal articles. Today, the TSS positions provided by EPD are inferred from next-generation sequencing data distributed in electronic form. Traditionally, EPD has been a high-quality database with low coverage. The focus of recent efforts has been to reach complete gene coverage for important model organisms. To this end, we introduced a new section called EPDnew, which is automatically assembled from multiple, carefully selected input datasets. As another novelty, we started to use chromatin signatures in addition to mRNA 5'tags to locate promoters of weekly expressed genes. Regarding user interfaces, we introduced a new promoter viewer which enables users to explore promoter-defining experimental evidence in a UCSC genome browser window.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Computer Graphics
  • Databases, Nucleic Acid*
  • High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Mice
  • Nucleotide Motifs
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic*
  • Transcription Initiation Site