Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B 6, Folate, Vitamin B 12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline



This report is the second in a series that presents a comprehensive set of reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy U.S and Canadian populations. It is a product of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) working in cooperation with scientists from Canada.

The report establishes a set of reference values for the B vitamins and choline to replace previously published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for the United States and Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for Canada. It considers evidence concerning the prevention of disease and developmental disorders along with more traditional evidence of sufficient nutrient intake; and examines data about choline, a food component that in the past has not been considered essential in the human diet. Although the reference values are based on data, the data were often scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the question. Thus, scientific judgment was required in setting the reference values. The reasoning used is described for each nutrient in Chapters 4 through 12. Evidence concerning the use of these nutrients for the amelioration or cure of disease or disability was not considered because that was beyond the project's scope of work.

Publication types

  • Review

Grant support

This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Contract No. 282-96-0033, T01; the National Institutes of Health Office of Nutrition Supplements, Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, T024, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity; Health Canada; the Institute of Medicine; and the Dietary Reference Intakes Corporate Donors' Fund. Contributors to the Fund include Roche Vitamins Inc, Mead Johnson Nutrition Group, Daiichi Fine Chemicals, Inc, Kemin Foods, Inc, M&M Mars, Weider Nutrition Group, and Natural Source Vitamin E Association.