Current level of glycaemic control and its associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes across Europe: data from the PANORAMA study

Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2014 Jan;80(1):47-56. doi: 10.1111/cen.12119. Epub 2013 May 6.


Objective: To provide an update on glycaemic control in European patients with type 2 diabetes based on data from the nine-country, cross-sectional PANORAMA study (NCT00916513).

Design: Post-hoc analysis to report the number of patients achieving/not achieving glycaemic goal (HbA(1c) <7%).

Patients: Patients were randomly or consecutively selected from physician practices in nine countries. Eligible patients were aged ≥40 years, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes >1 year prior to study entry, and had an available medical record of >1 year.

Measurements: All data were collected at a single visit, including HbA1c measurement using a common device (A1CNow). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate factors associated with not reaching glycaemic goal.

Results: Of 5817 patients enrolled (aged 65·9 ± 10·4 years, 53·7% male), 37·4% had an HbA(1c) ≥7%; (range 25·9% in The Netherlands to 52·0% in Turkey). In adjusted multivariate analyses, higher individual glycaemic target, younger age, poor physician-reported patient adherence to lifestyle/medication, longer diabetes duration, increasing treatment regimen complexity and physician-reported patient's unwillingness to intensify treatment were associated with not achieving goal. However, bivariate analyses also found gender, socioeconomic factors, body mass index, rate of complications and hypoglycaemia to be associated with not achieving goal.

Conclusions: In PANORAMA, 37·4% of patients enrolled were not at glycaemic goal. Factors relating to patient characteristics, physician selection of individualized HbA1c target and diabetes itself (longer duration, more complex treatment) were strongly associated with not achieving goal. Further studies are warranted to explore these associations and evaluate strategies for improving glycaemic control.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Europe
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multivariate Analysis


  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A

Associated data