Anti-TNF-α biotherapies: perspectives for evidence-based personalized medicine

Immunotherapy. 2012 Nov;4(11):1167-79. doi: 10.2217/imt.12.114.


This article discusses the rationale behind recommending immunopharmacological guidance of long-term therapies with genetically engineered anti-TNF-α immunoglobulin constructs. Arguments why therapeutic decision-making should not rely on clinical outcome alone are presented. Central to this is that the use of theranostics (i.e., monitoring circulating levels of functional anti-TNF-α drugs and antidrug antibodies) would markedly improve treatment because therapies can be tailored to individual patients and provide more effective and economical long-term therapies with minimal risk of side effects. Large-scale immunopharmacological knowledge of how patients 'handle' TNF-α biopharmaceuticals would also help industry develop more effective and safer TNF-α inhibitors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adalimumab
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use*
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / therapeutic use*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / drug therapy*
  • Autoimmune Diseases / immunology
  • Biological Therapy*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Etanercept
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / therapeutic use*
  • Infliximab
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Precision Medicine
  • Protein Engineering
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / therapeutic use*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / antagonists & inhibitors*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Infliximab
  • Adalimumab
  • Etanercept